Associate Professor Dr Gan Joo-Ee

Associate Professor Dr Gan Joo-Ee

  • Deputy Dean (Education)


Joo-Ee examines the impact of legal measures through socio-legal studies. Her area of research includes employees’ rights, minimum wage, and occupational health and safety in the hospitality sector. She also explores tourism governance as a vehicle for environmental protection and the socio-economic advancement of local communities, particularly the indigenous people. Joo-Ee is a member of IUCN’s Commission on Environmental, Economic and Social Policy (CEESP). Prior to joining academia, she was a solicitor specializing in corporate matters and a legal editor of the Hong Kong Law Report & Digests. She is an accredited mediator of Bar Council Malaysia and is on the Panel of the Malaysian Mediation Centre.

Academic & Professional Qualifications

  • Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), Taylor’s University (2017)
  • Master of Laws (LL.M), University of Cambridge (1996)
  • Bachelor of Laws (LL.B (Hons)), Queen Mary University of London (1995)
  • Advocate and Solicitor, High Court of Malaya (1998)

Research Interests

  • Tourism governance
  • Sustainable Tourism
  • Hospitality and tourism law
  • Human resource management in the hospitality industry

Notable Publications


  1. Gan, J.E. (2018). Hospitality Law, 2nd ed. Kuala Lumpur: Oxford University Press.


Book Sections

  1. Gan, J.E. (2024). Equal opportunities in rural tourism entrepreneurship: Challenges in Malaysia. In Tourism Cases. UK: CABI. 
  2. Gan, J.E. (2023). Convert ‘Good’ to ‘Excellent’ Tourism Governance: Improve Indigenous Engagement. In S.K. Dixit, & S. Piramanayagam (eds), Teaching Cases in Tourism, Hospitality and Events. Oxford: CABI, pp. 69-80. 
  3. Gan, J.E., Low, B., & Wong, B.T.Z. (2022). What a Waste Stakeholder engagement and sports event waste management: An analysis on operational efficiency. In T. Brown, P. Higson, & L. Gaston (eds), Events Mismanagement – Learning from failure. London: Goodfellow Publishers, pp. 197-214. Book DOI: 10.23912/9781915097101-4980
  4. Gan, J.E. (2021). Look what Covid-19 unveiled: The lack of insolvency protection by Malaysian travel companies. In A. Trakic (ed), Covid-19 and business law – Legal implications of a global pandemic. Oldenbourg: De Gruyter, pp. 49-66.
  5. Gan, J.E. (2020). The fallacy of economic upliftment through ecotourism:
    The case of the Malaysian indigenous Orang Asli. In T. Kananatu, & G.M.S. Koh (eds.), Vulnerable Groups in Malaysia. Oldenbourg: De Gruyter, pp. 89-104.
  6. Gan, J.E., & Nair, V. (2020). The constructs of responsible rural tourism governance for Belum-Temengor Forest Reserve, Malaysia. In V. Nair, A. Hamzah, & G. Musa (eds.), Responsible Rural Tourism in Asia, UK: Channel View, pp.195-212.
  7. Gan, J.E. (2018). Beyond theorising: Distinguishing between the limitations of critical theory and the researcher. In P. Mura, & C. Khoo-Lattimore (eds.), Asian Qualitative Research in Tourism, Perspectives on Asian Tourism. Singapore: Springer. pp. 81-95. 
  8. Gan, J.E. (2015). Informed Consent. In Cater, C., Garrod, B. and Low, T. (eds.) The Encyclopaedia of Sustainable Tourism. CABI, Oxford, UK. p. 304.
  9. Gan, J.E. (2015). Intellectual Property. In Cater, C., Garrod, B. and Low, T. (eds.) The Encyclopaedia of Sustainable Tourism. CABI, Oxford, UK. p. 304.


Technical Reports

  1. Hamzah, A., Gan, J.E., Majid, M.R., Hosen, N., Halim, N.A., Baharudin, N.S. & Yong, J.Y. (2016). Natural resource governance framework: Asia scoping work report. IUCN &CEESP. Accessible at:


Refereed Journal Articles

  1. Gan, J.E., Lim, J.P.S., Trupp, A., & Poon, W.C. (2024). State intervention and tourism business resilience: Exploring firm-level crisis response. Annals of Tourism Research Empirical Insights, 5(2), 100142.  
  2. Trupp, A., Salman, A., Stephenson, M.L., Chan, L.F., & Gan, J.E. (2024). A systematic review of challenges faced by micro and small enterprises in tourism destinations: Producing solutions through resilience building and sustainable development. Tourism Planning & Development 
  3. Gan, J.E., Lim, J.P.S., Poon, W.C., & Thuraiselvam, S. (2023). Rights awareness and Covid-19 tourism job losses: Perspectives from Malaysia. Current Issues in Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/13683500.2023.2203851
  4. Durai Rajah, K. & Gan, J.E. (2023). Workplace surveillance and the legal vacuum in Malaysia. [2023] 2 Malayan Law Journal xxix - xlii.
  5. Gan, J.E. (2022). Ecotourism and Malaysia’s Orang Asli: The social construction of indigeneity in community boundary-drawing. Journal of Ecotourism, 21(1), 54-70, DOI: 10.1080/14724049.2021.1918131
  6. Gan, J.E. (2020). Uncovering the environmental and social conflicts behind residents’ perception of CBT: A Case of Perak, Malaysia. Tourism Planning & Development, 17(6), 674-692, DOI: 10.1080/21568316.2020/1749121
  7. Gan, J.E. (2020). Vendors as environmental stakeholders: Lessons from a regional sports event. Asean Journal on Hospitality and Tourism, 18(2), 95-110.
  8. Gan, J.E. (2019). Contestation over the minimum wage in the Malaysian hotel sector: Spotting the elephant in the room. The Malayan Law Journal, 2019, 2, ix-xxiv.
  9. Gan, J.E., Nair, V. & Hamzah, A. (2019). The critical role of a lead institution in ecotourism management: A case of dual governance in Belum-Temengor, Malaysia. Journal of Policy Research in Tourism, Leisure and Events, 11(2), 257-275, DOI:10.1080/19407963.2018.1516076
  10. Gan, J.E. & Wong, B.T.Z. (2018). Comparing the self-reported data and observed behaviour of food waste separation: A study of the 29th Southeast Asian (SEA) Games. Asia-Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality & Tourism, 7 (Special issue), 107-130.    
  11. Gan, J.E. & Seo, N. (2018). Millennials’ environmental awareness, price sensitivity and willingness to pay for green hotels. Journal of Tourism, Hospitality & Culinary Arts, 10(2), 47-62.
  12. Gan, J.E. & Nair, V. (2016). An appraisal of the institutional structure of rural tourism in Malaysia: A conceptual framework. Journal of Environmental & Tourism Analyses, 4(1), 97-113.
  13. Gan, J.E. (2016). Minimum wage and the hospitality industry in Malaysia: An analysis of employee perceptions. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 15(1), 29-44, DOI: 10.1080/15332845.2015.1008396
  14. Gan, J.E. & Quah, J.E. (2015). The relevance of occupational health and safety training in hospitality education: A Malaysian perspective. Asia-Pacific Journal of Innovation in Hospitality and Tourism, 4(2), 217-233.
  15. Gan, J.E. & Goh, H.H. (2014). Minimum wage and the service charge conundrum in the hotel industry. [2014] 5 Malayan Law Journal xcii - civ.
  16. Gan, J.E. (2014). The requirement of natural justice in plagiarism inquiry: The impact on Malaysian universities. [2014] Law Review 102-114.
  17. Gan, J.E. (2014). Breach of promise of marriage: Uncertain legal terrain and the complex contours of Shariah law. [2014] 2 Malayan Law Journal i-x.
  18. Gan, J.E. (2013). The unwitting target groups of tobacco control laws in Malaysia. [2013] Law Review 47-61.
  19. Gan, J.E. (2012). The Food Analysts Act 2011 – Taking the bull by the horns in the fight against food fraud. [2012] 6 Malayan Law Journal cxxxiv.
  20. Gan, J.E. (2012). The prohibited “alien practice” of joint tenancy in Islamic Law – Salmah bt Omar & 6 Ors v Ahmad Rosli bin Aziz (Pentadbir Harta Pesaka Osman bin Mohamed, simati) & Anor. [2012] Law Review 45-54.


Refereed Conference Papers    

  1. Gan, J.E., Thuraiselvam, S., & Lim, J. (2022). A framework for the analysis of policy perceptions on Malaysia’s Covid-19 tourism recovery strategies. The 20th APacCHRIE Conference 2022 (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 23-25 May 2022). 
  2. Gan, J.E. (2019). Contestation over the minimum wage in the Malaysian hotel sector: Spotting the elephant in the room. Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics (JCAE) Doctoral Consortium and Annual Symposium 2019 (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 7-9 January 2019).
  3. Gan, J.E. (2018). Rural tourism as an avenue to improve the wellbeing of host communities. Newton Researcher Links Workshop on ‘Advancing work, health and well-being in rural and urban Malaysia’ (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 21-24 September 2018).
  4. Gan, J.E., Coanata, T. & Nair, V. (2016). Conservation cost and ecotourism in Malaysia: Multi-faceted aspects of tourists’ willingness to pay. The 6th Asia-Euro Conference 2016 (Gwalior, India, 9-11 November 2016).
  5. Gan, J.E. & Nair, V. (2016). Constructing the institutional framework for rural tourism in Malaysia. International Conference on Sustainable Development and Livelihoods (ICSDL) 2016 (Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, 26-28 August 2016).
  6. Gan, J.E. & Quah, J.E. (2015). Musculoskeletal disorders preventive training: Do hospitality students apply what they learn? The 2nd International Conference on Finance and Economics (ICFE) 2015 (Ho Chi Minh City, 4-6 June 2015).
  7. Gan, J.E. & Nair, V. (2015). A conceptual appraisal framework for the institutional structure of rural tourism in Malaysia. The 21st Asia Pacific Tourism Association (APTA) Conference 2015 (Kuala Lumpur, 14-17 May 2015). 
  8. Gan, J.E. (2014). The Impact of Minimum Wage on Labour Cost in the Hospitality Industry in Malaysia, The 12th APacCHRIE Conference 2014 (Kuala Lumpur, 21-24 May 2014).
  9. Gan, J.E. (2013). The expanding role of the tourism sector in Malaysia’s retirement industry, The 11th ApacCHRIE Conference 2013 (Macau, 21-24 May 2013).
  10. Gan, J.E. (2012). The Food Analysts Act 2011 – Taking the Bull by the Horns in the Fight Against Food Fraud, The 4th Asia-Euro Tourism, Hospitality & Gastronomy Conference 2012 (Kuala Lumpur, 28 Nov – 1 Dec 2012).


Achievements & Accolades

  1. Ministry of Higher Education’s Long Term Research Grant Scheme 2011 [LRGS grant no: JPT.S (BPKI)2000/09/01/015Jld.4(67)]. Role: Co-researcher.
  2. International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Natural Resource Governance Framework (NRGF) Asia Scoping Work 2016. Role: Co-researcher.
  3. Monash University Malaysia Business School Research Seed Grant no. B-5-19 (1 March 2019 – 29 November 2019) entitled: The social sustainability of indigenous tourism villages: A comparative study between Belum-Temengor, Perak and Padawan, Sarawak. Role: Principal researcher.
  4. Monash Malaysia Education Award Grant 2020 for project (ID: 25052): ‘Transition as a rite of passage’. Role: Co-researcher.
  5. Monash University Malaysia Learning and Teaching Research Grant 2021 for project (ID: 2101-0000000051): The Impact of Authentic Assessment on University Identification. Role: Co-researcher.
  6. Monash University Malaysia School of Business Outstanding Educator Award 2021.
  7. Sunway University Research Accelerator Grant Scheme 2024 for project (Grant code: GRTIN-RAG-SHSM-09-2024): The Institutional Quality of Malaysia’s Ecotourism Governance: Belum-Temengor as the Litmus Test. Value: RM29,130. Status: Principal investigator.